Forest Types as per Champion & Seth’s Revised Classification of 1968

      Forests of this Division are mainly tropical deciduous type and can be broadly classified into two major groups. These are Moist Tropical Forests, and Dry Tropical Forests. However, according to Champion and Seth’s revised classification of Forest Types of India, these forests have been further classified into different types and sub-types depending upon physiognomy, moisture conditions, floral composition and other variables. Forests having more than 20 % Sal have been taken as Sal forests. Several locality factors have also been taken into consideration.

Moist Peninsular Sal Forest

Group - 3 Tropical moist deciduous forests
Sub – group - 3C North Indian tropical moist deciduous forests
Type - 3C/C2 Moist Sal bearing forests
Sub – Type - 3C/ C2e Moist Peninsular Sal Forest

      This sub-type of forest has ‘Dominants’ which are mainly deciduous but ‘Sub-dominants’ and lower storey are largely evergreen. The top canopy is rarely dense and hardly going up to 20 meter height. In the Division, this category of forests is confined to a very few pockets and is characterized by the presence of Sal as principal species. Two Forms viz. Moist Peninsular high level Sal i.e. 3C/ C2e(i) and Moist Peninsular low level Sal i.e. 3C/ C2e(ii) do occur in the forests but in both these forms, Sal is generally of the uneven age and of Quality III and IV.

Southern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest

Group-5 Tropical dry deciduous Forests
Sub-Group-5A Southern tropical dry deciduous forests
Type - 5A/C3 Southern dry mixed deciduous Forests

    The most characteristic tree of this type is Anogeissus latifolia while Terminalia tomentosa is a very typical associate. Diospyros tomentosa is also common. Boswellia serrata and Lagersatroemia parviflora are very wide spread and conspicuous in this category of forests. Bamboo is generally of poor quality. Grass is conspicuous till it is grazed or burnt in forest fire. Climbers are few like Bauhinia vahlii. This type of forest, being especially prevalent in the drier localities occurs through out the Division with many forest blocks of Narayanpatna & Lamptaput Ranges.

Dry Peninsular Sal Forests

Group - 5 Tropical dry deciduous Forests
Sub – Group - 5B Northern tropical dry deciduous Forests
Type - 5B/C1 Dry Sal bearing Forests
Sub-Type-5B/C1c Dry peninsular Sal Forest

     This sub-type occurs, where, although rainfall is not low but moisture conditions are yet not favourable for the development of moist Sal forests. In fact, these forests exist on shallow soils derived from metamorphic rocks and often rest on hard impervious laterite. Sal is of poor quality (Q: IV-V) and unsoundness at young age is quite common.

Northern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest

Group - 5 Tropical dry deciduous Forests
Sub – Group - 5B Northern tropical dry deciduous Forests

Type 5B/C2

Northern dry mixed deciduous Forests

    The upper canopy is light and the trees have relatively short bole and poor form. The canopy height is rarely over 15 meters, often much less and is formed entirely of deciduous species. A considerable portion of the forests of the Division occupy this type of forest wherein Anogeissus latifolia is very widely spread and Buchanania lanzan; Sterculia urens; Bauhinia species & poorly grown Terminalia tomentosa are the most usual associates. Nyctanthes arbortristis is present in many tracks.

Dry Deciduous Scrub Forest

Group - 5 Tropical dry deciduous Forests
Type 5/DS1 Dry deciduous scrub forests (Biotic climax type)

      This is the degraded type of dry deciduous forests. It is recognized as the first degradation stage in both the Sub-groups of tropical dry deciduous forests found in the Division viz Northern tropical dry deciduous forests and Southern tropical dry deciduous forests. Since such forests are the result of continued biotic interference are also known as biotic climax types.

Dry Deciduous Savannah Forest

Group - 5 Tropical dry deciduous Forests
Type 5/DS2 Dry deciduous savannah forests (Biotic climax type)

      The second degradation stage of dry deciduous forest is this type of forest. It is an open forest but typical formation of original forests is lost and the trees stand apart singly or in small groups in more or less heavy grass in which certain fire resistant plants persist. These fire resistant plants gradually and slowly establish themselves as trees. However, in most of the cases, such plants do not get established as trees because of fire and other biotic factors and instead, keep sending up annual shoots from woody rootstock. Stem less phoenix is a particular characteristic of this forest as is found in Deomali and Pottangi PRF’s.

Dry Bamboo Brakes

Group - 5 Tropical dry deciduous Forests
Type 5/E9

Dry Bamboo brakes (edaphic climax type)

      Many of the species of deciduous forests like Anogeissus; Butea monospwerma; Bamboo and Boswellia serrata etc are capable of forming more or less pure stands. This is mostly the result of harsher environmental conditions including edaphic and biotic factors. Dry Bamboo Brakes is such type of forests, which is mostly encountered in Narayanpatna Range. Only Dendrocalamus strictus occurs in pure form in this forest type making relatively low but dense brakes. However, with increased grazing pressure and frequent ground fire, bamboo has grown into dense & congested form with grass and thorny shrubs in between.

CLICK HERE FORAbstract of Area under different Forest Types in Koraput Division