A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF SOIL CONSERVTION DEPARTMENT, KORAPUT :-

      One soil conservation division at Koraput and three soil conservation sub-divisions stationed at Koraput, Nandapur and Machkund are in position for implementation of various plans and programmes. Major thrust has been given on watershed development, cashew plantation and field bunding to overcome the erosion of top soil in hilly terrain area of Koraput district. Recently Soil Conservation Officer, Koraput has been designated as Soil Conservation Officer-cum-Project Director, Watershed, Koraput to look after watershed programmes in the district.

1. Watershed Programme: Presently treatment of 145 numbers of micro watersheds are going on in various schemes.
a) N.W.D.P.R.A.(National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas). These watershed programmes are funded directly from Director of Soil Conservation, Orissa, Bhubaneswar to different ASCOs. Presently 11 numbers of watersheds are running in XI plan period. The total project outlay of these watersheds are 253.907 lakh during 2010-11. No fund is received till date. The proportionate Natural Resource Management (NRM) fund amounting Rs.86.35 lakh will be met out of MGNREGS/2010-11. The balance of Rs. 167.55 lakhs will be received from the Director, Soil Conservation, Orissa, Bhubaneswar under Farm Production System, Livelihood Support System and Administrative Cost. The necessary proposal has been submitted to the Collector, Koraput.
b) R.V.P.(River Valley Project).
Objectives of the programme are:- i) Prevention of land degradation by adoption of a multi-disciplinary integrated approach of soil conservation and watershed management in the catchment areas;
ii) Improvement of land capability and moisture regime in the watersheds;
iii) Promotion of land use to match land capability;
iv) Prevention of soil loss from the catchments to reduce siltation of multipurpose reservoirs and enhance the in-situ moisture conservation and surface rainwater storage in the catchments to reduce flood peaks and volumes of runoff.
These watershed programmes are funded directly from Director of Soil Conservation, Orissa, Bhubaneswar to different ASCOs. Presently 9 numbers of watersheds are running in XI plan period. 4 numbers of watersheds are in Indravati catchment of Dasamanthpur and Laxmipur Block and rest 5 numbers are in Kolab Catchment i.e Koraput, Semiliguda and Nandapur Block. The total project outlays of these watersheds are 210.690 lakh during 2010-11. No fund is received till date.
c) Special Plan (RLTAP). These watershed programmes are planned by Orissa Watershed Development Mission, Bhubaneswar and funded by Director, Soil Conservation, Orissa, Bhubaneswar to Soil Conservation Officer-cum-Project Director, Watershed, Koraput. Presently 35 numbers of micro watersheds are executed in XI plan period. The total project outlays of these watersheds are 498.750 lakh during 2010-11. No fund is received till date. Grant is a special component in this programme for enhancement of livelihoods of landless people.
d) I.W.D.P.(Integrated Wastelands Development Programme). These watershed programmes are funded by Minister of Rural Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi to Project Director, D.R.D.A., Koraput, then to Soil Conservation Officer-cum-Project Director, Watershed, Koraput. Presently 30 numbers of micro watersheds are executed in XI plan period. The total project outlays of these watersheds are 210.000 lakh during 2010-11. No fund is received till date.
e) Jeebika – These livelihood programme are funded by Director, Soil Conservation, Orissa, Bhubaneswar to Soil Conservation Officer-cum-Project Director, Watershed, Koraput. It is a State initiative for the poor missed out of benefits from major development projects With a view to enhance the livelihood needs of the Korpaut’s landless and marginal households that are generally left out of the benefits from watersheds projects, the Govt. of Orissa has launched the Orissa Rural Livelihood Programme titled as “Jeebika”. So far the watershed projects being run with assistance from the Ministry of Rural Development, Govt. of India used to have only the watershed component which had little provisions for the livelihood needs of poor people. Under Jeebika, additional ‘livelihood component’ would be provided to above 30 ongoing watershed projects implemented under the Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP). Jeebika will be addressing the livelihood needs of the poor residing in the project villages. Preventive health care measures, sanitation, drinking water, food security, income generation activities through self help groups (SHG) and common interest groups (CIG); micro credit and savings, micro enterprise promotion, skill development, primary processing and marketing, livestock promotion, fishery, other off farm enterprises are the major activities in the purview of the Jeebika. The Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM) under the Dept. of Agriculture will be the nodal agency at the State level to oversee the implementation of the programme. The project management committee (PMC) of the OWDM chaired by the Agricultural Production Commissioner will review and guide the programme implementation. The project outlay is 380.85 lakh during 2010-11. Rs. 31.80 lakh is received till date.
f) IWMP(Integrated Watershed Management Programme). The main objectives of the IWMP are to restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover and water. The outcomes are prevention of soil run-off, regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table. This enables multi-cropping and the introduction of diverse agro-based activities, which help to provide sustainable livelihoods to the people residing in the watershed area. In addition, there is a Scheme of Technology Development, Extension and Training (TDET) is also being implemented to promote development of cost effective and proven technologies to support watershed management. These watershed programmes are funded by Ministry of Rural Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi to Project Director, D.R.D.A., Koraput, then released to the Soil Conservation Officer-cum-Project Director, Watershed, Koraput. Presently 60 numbers of micro watersheds are executed in XI plan period. The total project outlays of these watersheds are 504.000 lakh during preliminary phase no fund has been received till date.
2. MGNREGS(Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme): The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was notified on September, 2005. The Act provides a legal Guarantee of 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work at the minimum wage rate notified for agricultural labour prescribed in the State or else an unemployment allowance. The objective of the Act is to supplement wage employment opportunities in rural areas and in the process also build up durable assets.
The total target is 1927.210 lakhs. Out of this 230.00 lakh has been received. Thrust has been give for field bunding/land development and cashew plantation in watershed areas.
3. B.K.B.K.(Biju KBK): With a view to continuing their increasing efforts as well as for maintaining the momentum gathered under the Revised Long Term Action Plan (RLTAP) and upscaling the public investment in the Koraput-Bolangir-Kalahandi (KBK) region, the State Government have launched a new initiative, called "the Biju KBK Plan" under State Plan as a tribute to late Biju Patnaik. Former Chief Minister of Orissa who was the first to articulate the need for long-term measures for development of the KBK region. The total target is 104.35 lakhs. Out of this 104.35 lakh has been received. Thrust has been give for construction of Diversion Weir with Field Channel.
4. B.R.G.F.(Backward Regions Grant Fund). The Backward Regions Grant Fund is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. The fund will provide financial resources for supplementing and converging existing developmental requirements that are not being adequately met through existing inflows. Strengthen, to this end Panchayat and Municipality level governance with more appropriate capacity building, to facilitate participatory planning, decision making implementation and monitoring, to reflect local felt needs. Provide professional support to local bodies for planning, implementation and monitoring their plans. Improve the performance and delivery of critical functions assigned to Panchayats, and counter possible efficiency and equity losses on account of inadequate local capacity. The total target is 21.75 lakhs. Out of this 12.20 lakh has been received. Thrust has been give for construction of Diversion Weir with Field Channel.